In his book, The Art of Learning: An Inner Journey to Optimal Performance, Josh Waitzkin talks about entity theorists vs. learning theorists. Entity theorists think “I am smart at x” as if that were an absolute property. Learning theorists think “I am smart at x because I worked hard to learn x”. Most of my school days, I was an entity theorist, only to find out much later that being a learning theorist is key. It seems obvious in hindsight but it also seems obvious that countless people make this mistake.